Monday, June 8, 2020
What In Your Opinion Is Death, Dying, And Bereavement? (Essay Sample) Content: NameUniversityLecturerUnit codeDateWhat in your opinion is Death, Dying and Bereavement?Death, dying and bereavement are daily events in life. We see pictures of real or imagined death when watching movies or television. Death, dying and bereavement affects us differently as an individual. This short paper explains these three aspects, death, dying and bereavement, in my own opinion. In the words of Green and Wikler death is the end of life, when the body disconnects with the mind or the spirit (Green and Wikler 59). Some people think that death occurs when a persons heart stops to beat, however, this does not directly mean that the person is dead, since his frail brain may still be working, like when a person goes into a coma. Thus, death happens when the ailing consciousness finally stops entirely, the breathing ends, and the heart dies (Green and Wikler 59). Dying is a process that begins before the happening of death. Since death occurs in different ways, dying as well happens differently, and it can last from a few minutes to several years. As a process of dying starts, an individual begins a mental or spiritual path of discovery, accepting that death will eventually happen and trusting in their own death (Bradley 72). During the dying process, a person may become disoriented, delusional or weaker and end up being bedridden. Dying finally results to death (Frankfurt 13).As noted by Lawton, bereavement is a set of emotional, behavioral and physical reactions to a major loss of a loved person (54). Bereavement is a complicated process. During the course of bereavement, a person may experience sorry, anger, or sadness. The bereaved person can as well go through withdrawal or seek for social support all these are normal processes. Prolonged bereavement could be considered as complicated bereavement, and treatment may be required to solve this condition (Lewis 19).In conclusion, t...
Sunday, May 17, 2020
Christine Overall and Cressida Heyes are two authors who argue whether transracial surgery is legitimate under the condition of that transsexual surgery is acceptable. Their arguments are opposing to each other. Overall insists that both surgeries should be acceptable while Heyes does not agree with Overall. They both agree with that race and sex-gender are socially constructed. Thus, Overall has no problem with the concept of identity changesÃ¢â¬âfor both sex-gender and raceÃ¢â¬âhowever, Heyes argues that they are not constructed in the same way. Christine Overall is advocating the claim that transracial surgery is not problematic if transsexual surgery is acceptable. She brings possible arguments and discusses them against Ã¢â¬Å"rejecters ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Someone might point out that people who want to have the surgery for identity change, which can be either sex or race, are not be able to make a right decision or psychologically confused. However, Overall suggests that we have seen many people who did not have any problem in their work, relationship, and life after the surgery. If we assume that someone wants to change his or her identity due to a confusion, this case must be considered with oppression and discrimination that this person has experienced. Thus, it is not correct to say that people who want to change their identity are purely due to the mental sickness or confusion. Unlike Overall, Cressida Heyes argues that transracialism is not reasonable, while transsexualism is. Heyes brings up OverallÃ¢ â¬â¢s statement, claiming Ã¢â¬Å"if transsexual surgery is morally acceptableÃ¢â¬ ¦ then transracial surgery should be morally acceptableÃ¢â¬ (269). Heyes admits that the argument of Overall is clearÃ¢â¬âboth sex and race are socially constructed rather than inherited. Nonetheless, Heyes throws a question if they are constructed in the same way. Heyes would say no since OverallÃ¢â¬â¢s hypothetical approach is not meant to consider the history of two different identities. She also suggests few other differences between race and sex. Heyes brings three different points between race and sex. Firstly, she introduces Ã¢â¬Å"One-Drop RuleÃ¢â¬
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Does one who kills another deserve to die? Does One Who Kills Another Deserve to Die? Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t get mad, get evenÃ¢â¬ ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a common rule in a heartless society. But is it right? Thomas Hobbes stated that human beings are fearful of and hostile to one another, they resent the least detriment to themselves; to their bodies, their property, their liberty or opportunities, their pride or their reputationÃ¢â¬ . (Lisa H. Newton 2004 p. 59) Under certain circumstances there are reasons why one who kills another deserves to die and there are reasons why they donÃ¢â¬â¢t deserve to die. There are many different philosophic views on this topic. For example; a subject that brings much debate, should an insane person that kills be killed? Retributivists say thatÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦If the victim was not trying to hurt another person or doing anything unlawful than they shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be killed. UtilitarianÃ¢â¬â¢s considerations for legal punishment that were best suited for any crime made sense, the disablement, deterrence, and rehabilitatio n. The fact that we are designating whether or not a person deserves to die is grounded on a mere human idea and is highly subjective. Humans die: this is a fact and is not arguable. However, whether or not they deserve to die is whether or not we WANT them to die? If we dont want someone to die then they dont deserve to die. If we do want someone to die, usually out of a vindictive or moral motivation, we say, oh they deserve to die. Thus, since most humans want someone to die at some point or another(for example serial killers, drug addicts, risk seekers, or just the guy/girl you briefly met that insulted you deeply), it is a silly act to ask whether humans deserve to die or not. They definitely do deserve to die (only in certain situations like mentioned before) because we want them to die (in those situations). Any sort of a priori reason for someone to die or not is only determined by nature and natural selection and has no humanistic emotion of desire associated with it. This desire is what creates theShow MoreRelatedCapital Punishment is an Appropriate Penalty For Murder Essay1451 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespunishments on people who brake our laws. Some maldistribution of the death penalty is unavoidable, but that does not mean we should throw out the death penalty. When the death penalty is imposed on an innocent person that is a serious miscarriage of justice. 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Act Five Scene One What is the point of the gravediggerÃ¢â¬â¢s riddles and songs? The point of the gravediggerÃ¢â¬â¢s riddles and songs is to take the audience away from the tension and darkness caused by certain events, like the deaths of Ophelia and Polonius and bring some comic relief. I believe Shakespeare includes the gravediggers riddles and songs to calm theRead MoreThe Death Penalty Should Remain Lawful1565 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesimpossible to kill a condemned criminal correctly. BleckerÃ¢â¬â¢s main argument throughout his article is that it is important to find a way to enforce capital punishment for the reason that criminals deserve to die. He specifically cites people who Ã¢â¬Å"burned children alive, massacred a dozen strangers in a movie theater, or bombed the Boston Marathon,Ã¢â¬ as criminals who deserve to die but did not receive the death penalty(Blecker). 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Judith Jarvis Thomson, however, takes an entirely different approach. In her article Ã¢â¬Å"A Defense of AbortionÃ¢â¬ Thomson argues that even if a fetus is considered to be a human being does not automatically ensure it the right to live. ThomsonÃ¢â¬â¢s position leads to many oppositionsRead MoreCapital Punishment Essay666 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesCapital Punishment A thirty-five year old white male kidnaps and rapes two sisters, one nine years old and the other twelve. The man then brutally murders the two sisters, letting one watch as the other one was killed. The man leaves the bloody and beaten girls dead on their front porch. Does this man deserve to die? Capital punishment, if applied in this hypothetical situation, would serve its purpose in getting retribution for this crime. Capital punishment is a controversial subject
In his student days at the University of Moscow, he read widely in linguistics, sociology, psychology, philosophy and the arts. His systematic work in psychology did not begin until 1924. Ten years later he died of tuberculosis at the age of only 38. In that period, with the collaboration of Aleksandre Luria and A N Leontiev, he launched a series of investigations in developmental psychology, pedagogy and psychopathology. Vygotsky ran a medical practice in his native Byelorussia, actively participating in the development of the Revolution under atrocious conditions and almost total isolation from the West. His most famous work isÃ Ã¢â¬ËThought and LanguageÃ¢â¬â¢, published shortly after his death, developed for the first time a theory of language development which both anticipated Piagets genetic psychology describing the development of language and logical thinking in young children in the course of their interactions with adults and the world around them. THEORY OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT BACKGROUND To understand Vygotsky? s theory, it is important to look at the political environment of that time. Vygotsky began to work in psychology shortly after the Russian revolution, where the Marxism replaced the rule of the zar. The new philosophy of the Marxist emphasized socialism and collectivism. Individuals were expected to sacrifice their personal goals and achievements for the improvement of the larger society. Sharing and co-operation was encouraged, and the success of any individual was seen as reflecting the success of the culture. Marxists also placed a heavy emphasis on history, believing that any culture could be understood only through examination of the ideas and events that had shaped it. Vygotsky incorporates these elements in his model of human development that has been termed as a socio-cultural approach. For him, the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s development is a result of his or her culture. Development, in Vygotsky? s theory, applies mainly to mental development, such as thought, language and reasoning process. These abilities were understood to develop through social interactions with others (especially parents) and therefore represented the shared knowledge of the culture. THE THEORY Vygotsky viewed cognitive developments as a result of a dialectical process, where the child learns through shared problem solving experiences with someone else, such as parents, teacher, siblings or a peer. Originally, the person interacting with the child undertakes most of the responsibility for guiding the problem solving, but gradually this responsibility transfers to the child. Although these interactions can take many forms, Vygotsky stresses language dialogue. It is primarily through their speech that adults are assumed to transmit to children the rich body of knowledge that exists in their culture. As learning processes, the childÃ¢â¬â¢s own language comes to help as his or her primary tool of intellectual transformation. Children can eventually use their own internal speech to direct their own behaviour in much the same way that their parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ speech once directed it. This transition reflects the Vygotsky? s theme of development as a process of internalization. Bodies of knowledge and tools of thought at first exist outside the child, in the culture of the environment. Development consists of gradual internalization, primarily through language, to form cultural adaptation (Rogoff, 1990). LANGUAGE For Vygotsky, language has a particular role in learning and developmentÃ by acquiring a language, a child is provided the means to think in new ways and gains a new cognitive tool for making sense of the world. Language is used by children as an additional device in solving problems, to overcome impulsive action, to plan a solution before trying it out and to control their own behaviour (Jones, 1995). Nevertheless, the main purpose of language for children is social. They use the language to obtain the help of others and to solve problems. The child, in it process of development, begins to practice the same forms of behaviour that other formerly practice with respect to the child. The significance of such behaviour is only understood in a social context. The language is also crucial and interrelated with the action, providing an additional tool used both to reflect on and direct behaviour. VygotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s work is therefore viewed as particularly relevant to those who are concerned with the use of language. When Piaget labelled the self directed behaviour as egocentric and believed it only minimum relevant to childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive growth, Vygotsky referred to it as a private speech. He argued that private speech grows out of the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s interaction with parents and other adults and through such interactions; they begin to use their parentÃ¢â¬â¢s instructional comments to direct their own behaviour. Major themes: Social interaction plays a fundamental role in the process of cognitive development. In contrast to Jean PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of child development (in which development necessarily precedes learning), Vygotsky felt social learning precedes development. He states: Ã¢â¬Å"Every function in the childÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (inter-psychological) and then inside the child (intra-psychological). Ã¢â¬ (Vygotsky, 1978). The More Knowledgeable Other (MKO): The more knowledgeable other (MKO) is somewhat self-explanatory; it refers to someone who has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner, with respect to a particular task, process, or concept. Although he implication is that the MKO is a teacher or an older adult, this is not necessarily the case. Many times, a childs peers or an adults children may be the individuals with more knowledge or experience. For example, who is more likely to know more about the newest teen-age music groups, how to win at the most recent PlayStation game, or how to correctly perform the newest dance craze a child or their parents? In fact, theÃ MKOÃ need not be a person at all. Some companies, to support employees in their learning process, are now using electronic performance support systems. Electronic tutors have also been used in educational settings to facilitate and guide students through the learning process. The key to MKOs is that they must have (or be programmed with) more knowledge about the topic being learned than the learner does. The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD): The second aspect of Vygotsky? s theory is the idea that the potential for cognitive development is limited to a certain time span which he calls the Ã¢â¬Å"zone of proximal developmentÃ¢â¬ . ZPD refers to the gap between what a given child can achieve alone, their ? otential development as determined by independent problem solving? , and what they can achieve Ã¢â¬Ëthrough problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peersÃ¢â¬â¢ (Wood, D. , Wood, H. , 1966). Vygotsky refers to what children can do on their own as the Ã¢â¬Ëlevel of actual developmentÃ¢â¬â¢. In his view, it is the level of actual development that a standard IQ test measure. Such a measure is undoubtedly important, but it is also incomplete. Two children might have the same level of actual development, in the sense of being able to solve the same number of problems on some standardized test. Given appropriate help from an adult, still, one child might be able to solve an additional dozen problems while the other child might be able to solve only two or three more. What the child can do with the help is referred to as the Ã¢â¬Ëlevel of potential developmentÃ¢â¬â¢ (Vasta, R. , Haith, M. M. , Miller, S. A. , 1995). The full development during the ZPD depends upon full social interaction and the more the child takes advantages of an adultÃ¢â¬â¢s assistance, the broader is its Ã¢â¬ËZone of Proximal DevelopmentÃ¢â¬â¢. The ZPD is the distance between a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to perform a task under adult guidance and/or with peer collaboration and the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s ability solving the problem independently. According to Vygotsky, learning occurred in this zone. Vygotsky focused on the connections between people and the socio-cultural context in which they act and interact in shared experiences (Crawford, 1996). According to Vygotsky, humans use tools that develop from a culture, such as speech and writing, to mediate their social environments. Initially children develop these tools to serve solely as social functions, ways to communicate needs. Vygotsky believed that the internalization of these tools led to higher thinking skills. SCAFFOLDING ScaffoldingÃ is a concept closely related to the idea of ZPD, although Vygotsky never actually used the term. Scaffolding is changing the level of support to suit the cognitive potential of the child. Over the course of a teaching session, a more skilled person adjusts the amount of guidance to fit the childÃ¢â¬â¢s potential level of performance. More support is offered when a child is having difficulty with a particular task and, over time, less support is provided as the child makes gains on the task. Ideally, scaffolding works to maintain the childÃ¢â¬â¢s potential level of development in the ZPD. An essential element to the ZPD and scaffolding is the acquisition of language. According to Vygotsky, language (and in particular, speech) is fundamental to childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive growth because language provides purpose and intention so that behaviours can be better understood. Empirical research suggests that the benefits of scaffolding are not only useful during a task, but can extend beyond the immediate situation in order to influence future cognitive development. For instance, a recent study recorded verbal scaffolding between mothers and their 3- and 4-year-old children as they played together. Then, when the children were six years old, they underwent several measures ofÃ executive function, such as working memory and goal-directed play. The study found that the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s working memory and language skills at six years of age were related to the amount of verbal scaffolding provided by mothers at age three. In particular, scaffolding was most effective when mothers provided explicit conceptual links during play. Therefore, the results of this study not only suggest that verbal scaffolding aids childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive development, but that the quality of the scaffolding is also important for learning and development. Applications of the VygotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s Social Development Theory If adults wish to provide learning opportunities, they must evaluate the childÃ¢â¬â¢s present developmental level and estimate the Ã¢â¬ËlengthÃ¢â¬â¢ of the ZDP. But, the child must be able to make use of the help of others; it needs the competence to benefit from the give-and-take activities and conversations with others (Bruner, 1983). Vygotsky acknowledged the maturational limits of the ZPD, but most psychological research has emphasized the role of the environment: parents and other adults who are Ã¢â¬ËexpertÃ¢â¬â¢ models and guides for a young learner. Many schools have traditionally held a transmissionist or instructionist model in which a teacher or lecturer Ã¢â¬ËtransmitsÃ¢â¬â¢ information to students. In contrast, VygotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s theory promotes learning contexts in which students play an active role in learning. Roles of the teacher and student are therefore shifted, as a teacher should collaborate with his or her students in order to help facilitate meaning construction in students. Learning therefore becomes a reciprocal experience for the students and teacher. More recently, linguists and educationalists influenced by PiagetsÃ Genetic Psychology have been drawn towards Vygotskys work, seeing in it a superior understanding of the relationship between the educator and the educated, in which the educator must negotiate with the child or student who is credited with an active role in the learning process.
Monday, April 20, 2020
School Ties - The Code Of Honor The Code of Honor Honesty, respect, accountability, these are all words the honor code stands by, it's a foundation on which academic integrity abides, and a line drawn between what's right and wrong. The honor code in the movie School Ties meant more than just a signature one signed, it was a living entity, a guideline the school swore by, and those that broke the code met with the consequences. ?It is the students responsibility, not the teachers, to uphold St. Matthews honor code,? said the headmaster as he addressed the students gathered in the chapel for mass at St. Matthews. The headmaster understood the relevance of the code, and that the power was vested in the students to make it work for the entire student body. Another example of the honor code was when the history teacher addressed the class by asking the students to discuss among themselves who cheated on the recent test. He went on to strongly urged the class that overlooking the incident would be robbing them of the honor code. At the end of the movie the main character, David Green, takes the fall for Charles Dillon, the student who cheated. However, the headmaster finds out the truth from the prefect, Rip, and Dillon is expelled from school. As David leaves the headmasters office, the teacher reminds him, ?The honor code is a living thing, it can't live in a vacuum.? St. Matthew's knew how to fill the vacuum, but it was the students that lived it. A life not set by rules or regulations, but an internal drumbeat, marching to the beat of its own, honesty. I have sincere doubts about the usefulness and the meaningfulness of the honor code, because addressing cheating requires more than just the honor code alone. Cheating is a problem in part because of the enormous pressure put on students by a school's high-strung atmosphere to achieve. I think students feel that in order to survive, they must take advantage of the gray areas of being honest, often stretching the limits as to cheating and using someone else's work. Therefore, any honor code implemented in such an environment will result in students changing cheating techniques to work around the code. I feel the best way to deal with this problem is to make students fully aware that cheating is unprofitable and nothing good come of it. Ultimately, the honor code works because it is fully enforced by the students themselves. As Mencken once said, For every complex problem there is a simple solution -- and it is wrong. Solving the issue of dishonesty requires far more than just an honor code alone.
Sunday, March 15, 2020
Reasons for Humanity to Go Back to the Moon It has beenÃ decades since the first astronauts walked on the lunar surface. Since then, nobody has set foot on our nearest neighbor in space. Sure, a fleet of probes have headed to the Moon, and they have supplied a lot of information about conditions there.Ã Is it time to send people to the Moon? The answer coming from the space community is a qualified yes. What that means is, there are missions on the planning boards, but also many questions about what people will do to get there and what theyll do once they set foot on the dusty surface. What Are the Obstacles? The last time people landed on the Moon was in 1972. Since then, a variety of political and economic reasons have kept space agencies from continuing those bold steps. However, the big issues are money, safety, and justifications. The most obvious reason that lunar missions arent happening as quickly as people would like is their cost. NASA spent billions of dollars during the 1960s and early 70s developing the Apollo missions. These happened at the height of the Cold War when the U.S. and the former Soviet Union were at odds politically but were not actively fighting each other in land wars. The expenses of trips to the Moon were tolerated by American people and Soviet citizens for the sake of patriotism and staying ahead of each other. Although there are many good reasons to go back to the Moon, its tough to get a political consensus on spending taxpayer money to do it. Safety Is Important The second reason hampering lunar exploration is the sheer danger of such an enterprise. Faced with the immense challenges that plagued NASA during the 1950s and 60s, it is no small wonder that anyone ever made it to the Moon. Several astronauts lost their lives during the Apollo program, and many technological setbacks took place along the way. However, long-term missions aboard the International Space Station show that humans canÃ live and work in space, and new developments in space launch and transport capabilities are promising safer ways to get to the Moon. Why Go? The third reason for a lack of lunar missions is that there needs to be a clear mission and goals.Ã While interesting and scientifically important experiments can always be done, people are also interested in return on investment. Thats particularly true for companies and institutions interested in making money from lunar mining, science research, and tourism. Its easier to send robot probes to do science, although its better to send people. With human missions come higher expenses in terms of life support and safety. With the advances of robotic space probes, a great amount of data can be gathered at a much lower cost and without endangering human life. The big-picture questions, like how did the solar system form, require much longer and more extensive trips than just a couple days on the Moon. Things Are Changing The good news is that attitudes toward lunar trips can and do change, and its likely that a human mission to the Moon will happen within a decade or less. Current NASA mission scenarios include trips to the lunar surface and also to an asteroid, although the asteroid trip may be of more interest to mining companies.Ã Traveling to the Moon will still be expensive. However, NASA mission planners feel that the benefits outweigh the cost. Even more important, the government foresees a good return on investment. Thats actually a very good argument. The Apollo missions required a significant initial investment. However, technology- weather satellite systems, global positioning systems (GPS), and advanced communication devices, among other advancements- created to support the lunar missions and subsequent planetary science missions are now in everyday use on Earth. New technologies aimed specifically at future lunar missions would also find their way into the worlds economies, spurring a good return on investment Expanding Lunar Interest Other countries are looking quite seriously at sending lunar missions, most specifically China and Japan.Ã The Chinese have been very clear about their intentions, and have good capability to carry out a long-term lunar mission. Their activities may well spur American and European agencies into a mini race to also build lunar bases. Lunar orbiting laboratories may make an excellent next step, no matter who builds and sends them.Ã The technology available now, and that to be developed during any concentrated missions to the Moon, would allow scientists to do much more detailed (and longer) studies of the Moons surface and sub-surface systems. Scientists would get the opportunity to answer some of the big questions about how our solar system was formed, or the details about how Moon was created and its geology. Lunar exploration would stimulate new avenues of study. People also expect that lunar tourism would be another way to maximize exploration.Ã Missions to Mars are alsoÃ hot news these days. Some scenarios see humans heading to the Red Planet within a few years, while others foresee Mars missions by the 2030s. Returning to the Moon is an important step in Mars mission planning. The hope is that people could spend time on the Moon to learn how to live in a forbidding environment. If something went wrong, rescue would be only a few days away, rather than months.Ã Finally, there are valuable resources on the Moon that can be used for other space missions. Liquid oxygen is a major component of the propellant needed for current space travel. NASA believes that this resource can be easily extracted from the Moon and stored at deposit sites for use by other missions - particularly by sending astronauts to Mars. Many other minerals exist, and even some water stores,Ã that can be mined as well. The Verdict Humans have always made an effort to understand the universe, and going to the Moon does seem to be the next logical step for many reasons. It will be interesting to see who starts up the next race to the Moon. Edited and revised by Carolyn Collins Petersen
Friday, February 28, 2020
Issues in corporate finance - Assignment Example Most important, companies have to understand the value of trading-off aspects of capital because such practise results to better performance. The trade-off theory of capital structure maintains the positive relationship between earnings and leverage. Empirical evidences, however, argue that such observation is fallible (Sarkar and Zapatero, 2003). Despite the contradicting outcomes, trade-off has considered as valuable mechanism in gauging corporate revenues. In most instances, the trade-off theory has consistently predicted information related to debt structure. The theory suggests that weak firms are more inclined to finance exclusively with bank debts. Apparently, weak firms tend to ignore other debt sources in particular public debts. Another important idea posited by the theory is that the optimal debt structure seen among strong firms pertains to combinations of bank and market debt. Basically, strong firms have become adept in successfully managing both bank and market debts. It has to be noted that the nature of both debts are differently perceived. Strong firms have the capacity to acquire different forms of debt instruments because of their financial scope. In uncertain markets, the strategy of using varied debt mechanisms allow strong firms to be more flexible in handling risks. According to Brealey and Meyers (2000), the trade-off theory pu... Furthermore, critics claim that the theory is ill-equipped to justify relevant practises. The concept developed by Modigliani and Miller (1958) revolves on the market imperfections that eventually affect capital structures. Indeed, market imperfections occur in several forms. The most prominent observed among firms include taxes, market distresses, and agency costs. For most firms, the challenge is to create an optimal capital structure when these market imperfections emerge. The theory assumes that after a certain firm establishes the optimal combination of financial resources all succeeding financing is raised in the same proportion of debt and equity financing. This, however, is expected to vary in the method of reporting and practising. Among publicly trading companies, Houston and James (1996) observed that there is an insignificant use of market debt. The percentage of non-market debt among listed companies is greater in value as evident in the majority of firms preferring non-market debt. In addition, the listed firms that use market debts show that non-market debts still occupy the most shares on the overall debt. Johnson (1997) pointed out that the long-term debt structure suggests better use of market debts. Among the users of market debt, more than half of the total long-term debt is considered as market issued. Trade-off has usually been used to determine financing decisions. Traditionally, firms either maintain a target capital structure or follow the hierarchy of financing. Pinegar and Wilbritch (1989) conducted a survey on firms belonging to the Fortune 500 on their financing preference. Based on the results, majority of the firms listed in Fortune 500 have been using target capital structure to